Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Red Hat, Inc. is an S&P 50o company in the free and open software sector, and a major Linux distribution vendor. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina with satellite offices worldwide.Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating system Red Hat Enterprise Linux and with the acquisition of open-source enterprise middleware vendor JBoss. Red Hat provides operating-system platforms along with middleware, applications, and management products, as well as support, training, and consulting services.

Friday, June 26, 2009

Fact Of The Einstien's Theory

rddington's photograph of a solar eclipse, which confirmed the ALBERT EINSTEIN'S THEORY that like "bends". On 7 November 1919. the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "THE REVOLUTION IN SCIENCE"- NEW THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE- NEWTONIAN IDEAS OVERTRHOWN".

Thursday, June 25, 2009


Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), popularly known as the Nazi Party. He was the ruler of Germany from 1933 to 1945, serving as chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and as head of state (F├╝hrer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945.
A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the Nazi Party in 1920 and became its leader in 1921. Following his imprisonment after a failed coup in 1923, he gained support by promoting German nationalism, anti-semitism, and anti-communis with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He was appointed chancellor in 1933, and quickly established and made reality his vision of a totalitarian, autocratic, single party, national socialist dictatorship. Hitler pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for Germany, directing the resources of the state toward this goal. His rebuilt Wehrmacht invaded Poland in 1939, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.
Within three years, Germany and the Axis powers occupied most of Europe and a part of northern Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onward and in 1945 Allied armies invaded Germany from all sides. His forces committed numerous atrocities during the war, including the systematic killing of as many as 17 million civilians including the genocide of an estimated six million Jews, known as the Holocaust.

Friday, May 8, 2009


At this moment, i think im in the busy time..........
many things that i have to catch up...........
the main thing is a mid year the same time the f1 competition is around the corner....
its a little bit, bother my concentration to focus my study........
i agree that cikgu fauzi said..."this things cannot give any benefit to my exam result, it just a competition".....
in addition to, i always spent my study time to give a concentration to this competition.....
im so worried.......

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

music info

Playing music can make your life free from trouble...


Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes and aims use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with which they do not agree. Eric S. Raymond advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as one wider hacker culture, a view harshly rejected by Raymond himself. Instead of a hacker – cracker dichotomy, they give more emphasis to a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat (“ethical hacking”), grey hat, black hat and script kiddie. In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term cracker to refer to black hat hackers, or more generally hackers with unlawful intentions.

White hat =

A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons.

Grey hacker =

A grey hat hacker is a hacker of ambiguous ethics and/or borderline legality, often frankly admitted.

Black Hacker =

A black hat hacker is someone who subverts computer security without authorization or who uses technology (usually a computer or the Internet) for vandalism (malicious destruction), credit card fraud, identity theft, intellectual property theft, or many other types of crime. This can mean taking control of a remote computer through a network, or software cracking.

Script kiddie =

A script kiddie is a non-expert who breaks into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated tools written by others.

Hacktivist =

A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to announce a political message.

History of programming

See also: History of programming languages
Wired plug board for an IBM 402 Accounting Machine.

The concept of devices that operate following a pre-defined set of instructions traces back to Greek Mythology, notably Hephaestus and his mechanical servants[3]. The Antikythera mechanism was a calculator utilizing gears of various sizes and configuration to determine its operation. The earliest known programmable machines (machines whose behavior can be controlled and predicted with a set of instructions) were Al-Jazari's programmable Automata in 1206.[4] One of Al-Jazari's robots was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. Programming this mechanism's behavior meant placing pegs and cams into a wooden drum at specific locations. These would then bump into little levers that operate a percussion instrument. The output of this device was a small drummer playing various rhythms and drum patterns.[5][6] Another sophisticated programmable machine by Al-Jazari was the castle clock, notable for its concept of variables which the operator could manipulate as necessary (i.e. the length of day and night). The Jacquard Loom, which Joseph Marie Jacquard developed in 1801, uses a series of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them. The hole pattern represented the pattern that the loom had to follow in weaving cloth. The loom could produce entirely different weaves using different sets of cards. Charles Babbage adopted the use of punched cards around 1830 to control his Analytical Engine. The synthesis of numerical calculation, predetermined operation and output, along with a way to organize and input instructions in a manner relatively easy for humans to conceive and produce, led to the modern development of computer programming.

Development of computer programming accelerated through the Industrial Revolution. The punch card innovation was later refined by Herman Hollerith who, in 1896 founded the Tabulating Machine Company (which became IBM). He invented the Hollerith punched card, the card reader, and the key punch machine. These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. The addition of a plug-board to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to do different jobs without having to be physically rebuilt. By the late 1940s there were a variety of plug-board programmable machines, called unit record equipment, to perform data processing tasks (card reading). Early computer programmers used plug-boards for the variety of complex calculations requested of the newly invented machines.

Data and instructions could be stored on external punch cards, which were kept in order and arranged in program decks.

The invention of the Von Neumann architecture allowed computer programs to be stored in computer memory. Early programs had to be painstakingly crafted using the instructions of the particular machine, often in binary notation. Every model of computer would be likely to need different instructions to do the same task. Later assembly languages were developed that let the programmer specify each instruction in a text format, entering abbreviations for each operation code instead of a number and specifying addresses in symbolic form (e.g. ADD X, TOTAL). In 1954 Fortran, the first higher level programming language, was invented. This allowed programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula directly (e.g. Y = X*2 + 5*X + 9). The program text, or source, was converted into machine instructions using a special program called a compiler. Many other languages were developed, including ones for commercial programming, such as COBOL. Programs were mostly still entered using punch cards or paper tape. (See computer programming in the punch card era). By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough so programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punch cards.

As time has progressed, computers have made giant leaps in the area of processing power. This has brought about newer programming languages that are more abstracted from the underlying hardware. Although these more abstracted languages require additional overhead, in most cases the huge increase in speed of modern computers has brought about little performance decrease compared to earlier counterparts. The benefits of these more abstracted languages is that they allow both an easier learning curve for people less familiar with the older lower-level programming languages, and they also allow a more experienced programmer to develop simple applications quickly. Despite these benefits, large complicated programs, and programs that are more dependent on speed still require the faster and relatively lower-level languages with today's hardware. (The same concerns were raised about the original Fortran language.)

Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, programming was an attractive career in most developed countries. Some forms of programming have been increasingly subject to offshore outsourcing (importing software and services from other countries, usually at a lower wage), making programming career decisions in developed countries more complicated, while increasing economic opportunities in less developed areas. It is unclear how far this trend will continue and how deeply it will impact programmer wages and opportunities.